Government & Law

Canada’s Political System


Canada’s Government is made up of more than one system. Canada is made up of a constitutional monarchy, a representative democracy, a federal system, and a party system. If you are confused about what these terms mean, I am here to explain.

A Constitutional monarchy is a system where there is a monarch that acts as the head of government for a constitution. For Canada, us Canadians follow the British political traditions. This is why we are thought of to be lead by the British Queen, but in fact, in Canada, the Queen has no political power. The Queen does not live in Canada, so to represent her presence in Canadian politics, a Governor General (also known as the G.G) is appointed by the Queen based on the Prime Minister’s advice. The Governor General does many things in Canada. He/she is to assist royal visitors and also present high level awards to recognize excellence, valour, bravery, and exceptional achievements.

Image of the Governor General's Standard

Second a Representative democracy is where the people of a country or nation elects their leaders to run the country. They are first to run for a party and then are elected in an election. There are many pros and cons in this system, no system is perfect. A flaw in this system is that we don’t elect the senators, the Prime Minister does. So if the senators do anything that they are not suppose to, it is the Prime Ministers fault and many disagree with the idea of our leader choosing the senators, yet others explain “why not trust the leader we elected to choose.” There has been a huge debate on whether we should have a senate reform and allow the citizens to chose their senators or to trust in our Prime Minister since we have elected him and should have at least some trust in him to make the right decisions for our country.

Third and quite important is the Federal system. This is the way government disburses its power. Power is administered over three levels of government, which are the Federal, Provincial, and the Municipal. The Federal is the level of government that makes decisions for all citizens in the country. It make decisions for things like taxes, loans, fees, RCMP, and the Postal Service. Things that affect and relate to everyone in a country. The Provincial level of government is very self explanatory. It deals with decisions within each province. It makes decisions on things like education, medical care, provincial police, and licenses. The last level of government is the Municipal. It is the level of government that makes decisions for much smaller areas compared to the other two levels. It deals with cities or some towns. It decides on things like the cities firefighters, water supply, public transit, and local police.

The last system is called the Party system. It states that the representatives at the three levels of the Federal system are from political parties. Parties that have have ideas and beliefs about how the government should be governed are called ideologies.  Parties can work at any level of government. The three main parties in Canada are The Liberals, Conservatives, and the NDP. There are many more parties, those are just the main ones.


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