introduction

Biology is not just a science but it is Timme Zhao’s specialty. I love everything thing about biology, from the tiny cell to the

 

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How were the first immigration journeys like?

In the history of Canada, the largest wave of immigration occurred just after the War of 1812. Immigrants from Britain, Europe, and United States were the first to come to Canada because of promises and benefits the canadian government promised. At the time, the journey over water took more than a months time in extremely tough living environments, which caused many to catch diseases: countless passengers died on the treacherous journey.

 

The Immigrants of Britain

The largest movement of immigration of Britain took place from 1815-1850. The largest reason that pushed many out of Britain was the overpopulation of the cities and countryside; however, what drew thousands of British to immigrate to Canada was the potato famine that developed in Britain. This motivated many farmers from Ireland and Scotland to emigrate in search of the rich unused soil Canada could provide.

 

The Immigrants of Black Canadians

 

Prostitution bill would make it illegal to buy, sell sex in public

The Supreme Court of Canada struck down three key sections of Canada’s prostitution law in December, 2013. (JOHN LEHMANN/THE GLOBE AND MAIL) A new bill (Bill C-36) has been passed by the House of Commons which declares “buying sex or trying to sell it in public areas involving people under 18 can be found illegal and punishable by up to five years in prison.” The reason why the government would try and rid of prostitution for people under 18 is because the government has recognized, the many that are involved in selling sexual services do not chose to do it, but are forced to. I can see what the government is doing with this new bill; however, i still have many mixed feelings towards this article. Why i think many are forced to go into this business is because they need to make money for their kids. So, though they are “forced” in a way, they are forced because they are not able to attend to their kids or family. Because of this, i think many will still participate in this business because of the need for more support. However, the government has also promised to provide $20 million to help not just young sex workers but any “sex models” to get out of prostitution, which I think will help greatly and will help many to stop prositution and maybe help many to even start new lives. Many think this new bill will infringe on human rights and i agree it will; however, I think the benefits in this case outway the drawbacks.

Komagata Maru

 

The CommonWealth

The CommonWealth, originally known as the British CommonWealth is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states. It first originated during the decolonization of the british empire which occurred in the mid-twentieth century.  It was started by the London Declaration  in the year 1949, in which established the state members as “free and equal”. Members of the CommonWealth were not forced to form an alliance or anything of the sort; however, they do united through language, share the same democratic laws and rights. Ultimately , the CommonWealth is suppose to connect us all together and have different states and cities around the world to at least cooperate with each other; yet, within the case of the Komagata Maru, where people traveled from India, Japan, and China were not allowed into Vancouver, it made me wonder: what is the CommonWealth doing in this situation?

The logo of the Commonwealth

 

http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/I-5.pdf

Aboriginal Culture groups

Before there were cars, houses, buildings, and more importantly Europeans (which i will touch on later on in this category) Canada was inhabited by the first people commonly The First Nations. In Canada, there are many groups of First Nations. You probably think of First Nation people as being the tall, tanned people that you would see in Hollywood movies wearing tribal outfits that have long hair. I am here to tell you that there is not a set standard. What you might think of First Nations people is probably just stereotypes (which i will be explaining later). There are hundreds of tribes which fall into the 6 main aboriginal culture groups. These groups are called the Arctic, Sub Arctic, Northwest Coast, Plateau, Plains, and the Eastern Woodlands.

A map of the 6 sections Canada is made up of http://www.ecokids.ca

 

 

 

The Arctic

Dogs running in the icy mountain regions of the Arctic

A photo of how the Inuit used dogs to travel across the ice land http://www.bbc.com

The Arctic was first inhabited by the first people named the Inuit peoples 20 000 years ago. People are unsure of how they were able to survive and be able to live in fortitude within such harsh conditions. There were very little trees and very little easily accessible resources. Seasons were very mercenary expectually winter which had extremely long nights which often brought total darkness for many months at a time. The Inuit were able to survive on sea-mammal hunting and used the inedible sections like the fur and bones to their advantage. They also had lives filled with beautiful cultures that involved many ceremonies celebrations and gatherings. Each group or band (a group of people living together on an Indian reserve) consisted of 500-1000 Inuits.

 

 

Sub-Arctic

A map of the Sub-Arctic and what Aboriginal groups make up this land http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com

The Sub-Arctic is the largest section of Canada. Temperatures vary across the area, the temperature ranges from -40′C in the winter to 30′C in the summer. The Subarctic people are located from the Yukon to Newfoundland, including parts of seven provinces and two territories.  The main Aboriginal groups that make up this massive chunk of land are the Dene which were located in the North West, the Tlingit that were also in the North West and the Cree, which of who were located in the center and East section of the Sub-Arctic. The Sub-Arctic had the lowest population relative to the amount of land. The entire section of the Sub-Arctic was made up of a population of 60 000. This was because of how harsh the weather changes were which resulted in drastic changes in animal life. The peoples houses were build underground to stay out of the weather and had very complex housing layouts. The Sub-Arctic people thought of many Myths and legends that were related to the animals which is how they passed on stories and culture.

 

Northwest Coast

Coastal First Nations Dance

A Photo of the Coastal peoples festival dance http://www.insidevancouver.ca/2013/02/27/coastal-first-nations-dance-festival/

First Nations located on the Northwest Coast have inhabited the coast for over 10 000 years. This area runs from the North of Washington into Alaska. The temperatures here are nothing compared to the harsh conditions in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic. It stays moderate throughout the year which resulted in easy inhabitable land for not just the people, but for animals. Because of this food was not a problem for the Coastal people. Some of the main groups that inhabited this area were the Haida, Salishan and the Nuu-chahnulth. The homes that were build here were extremely complex and were commonly built with immense red cedar trees. Red cedar was also used to build the canoes because of the enormous size of the logs and the water-resistant abilities it had. Many groups were very traditional and had very beautiful cultures, which involved potlatches, story telling, and dancing.

 

 

The Plateau

An image of berries being dried to be preserved http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com

The Plateau section of Canada is located East of the Northwest Coast. Because of being farther from the coast, the temperature here is also . This area is also quite resourceful and because of this the food was plentiful and the houses that were build differed depending on the seasons. In the winter under ground housing was build and in the summer little houses made up of bulrush and logs were built. The Plateau people traded because of the many lakes that were used for easy travel. The Plateau people had many religions and languages. These people were quite diverse.

 

 

The Plains

An image of a village of Plains peoples tipi’s http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/tipi/

The region of the Plains covers from the Rockey Mountains to Southern Manitoba. The people that are located here are what people usually think of when First Nations is spoken of. The people here are the ones that are shown in Hollywood movies. The main groups that live in the Plains are the Gros Venture, Sioux and the Plain Cree and the languages that were most commonly spoken were Athapascan, Algonquin, and Siouan. In the Plains, Buffalo was the most abundant food source and met all the needs of the Plains people; because of this, the Plains people were known as nomadic. Buffalo was eaten at every meal and every part of the buffalo. There were many different traditional dishes, all of which consisted of a section of the buffalo. The Plains people used many techniques to capture buffalo. One of which was by building large statues called inukshuk’s (image on the right) which represented the shape of a human (a head 2 arm and 2 legs) they were suppose to herd buffalo’s towards a buffalo camp ground, where there would be hunters to ambush them. Another technique that was used to capture buffalo’s was to drive them over cliffs and fall to their deaths.

 

 

Eastern Woodlands

Woodland Indian Regions

A map of the woodlands http://71.114.108.171:8080/aemes/resource/woodland/index.htm

The Eastern Woodlands covers from the St. Lawrence basin to Illinois and South Carolina. The largest group that inhabit this land is the Algonquian. And the main language spoke is Algonquin. As from what you can probably assume from the name of this area, the region is thick with forest. The culture is very old fashion, meaning the men worked and the women stayed to cook and grow and maintain a garden. These people were very dependent on fruits and vegetables, which made up a large majority of their diet; because of this, whenever they wore out the soil they used, they had to move to new places to be able to keep up with their garden growing. The people of the Eastern Woodlands also hunted many animals that lived in the forest. These People were known as nomadic. Their houses were build of trees and were called wigwams.

 

 

Canada’s Political System

Victoria BC (Canada), BC Parliament Buildings and gardens

 

Canada’s Government is made up of more than one system. Canada is made up of a constitutional monarchy, a representative democracy, a federal system, and a party system. If you are confused about what these terms mean, I am here to explain.

A Constitutional monarchy is a system where there is a monarch that acts as the head of government for a constitution. For Canada, us Canadians follow the British political traditions. This is why we are thought of to be lead by the British Queen, but in fact, in Canada, the Queen has no political power. The Queen does not live in Canada, so to represent her presence in Canadian politics, a Governor General (also known as the G.G) is appointed by the Queen based on the Prime Minister’s advice. The Governor General does many things in Canada. He/she is to assist royal visitors and also present high level awards to recognize excellence, valour, bravery, and exceptional achievements.

Image of the Governor General's Standard

Second a Representative democracy is where the people of a country or nation elects their leaders to run the country. They are first to run for a party and then are elected in an election. There are many pros and cons in this system, no system is perfect. A flaw in this system is that we don’t elect the senators, the Prime Minister does. So if the senators do anything that they are not suppose to, it is the Prime Ministers fault and many disagree with the idea of our leader choosing the senators, yet others explain “why not trust the leader we elected to choose.” There has been a huge debate on whether we should have a senate reform and allow the citizens to chose their senators or to trust in our Prime Minister since we have elected him and should have at least some trust in him to make the right decisions for our country.

Third and quite important is the Federal system. This is the way government disburses its power. Power is administered over three levels of government, which are the Federal, Provincial, and the Municipal. The Federal is the level of government that makes decisions for all citizens in the country. It make decisions for things like taxes, loans, fees, RCMP, and the Postal Service. Things that affect and relate to everyone in a country. The Provincial level of government is very self explanatory. It deals with decisions within each province. It makes decisions on things like education, medical care, provincial police, and licenses. The last level of government is the Municipal. It is the level of government that makes decisions for much smaller areas compared to the other two levels. It deals with cities or some towns. It decides on things like the cities firefighters, water supply, public transit, and local police.

The last system is called the Party system. It states that the representatives at the three levels of the Federal system are from political parties. Parties that have have ideas and beliefs about how the government should be governed are called ideologies.  Parties can work at any level of government. The three main parties in Canada are The Liberals, Conservatives, and the NDP. There are many more parties, those are just the main ones.